Five axis machining is a mode of NC machining.
According to ISO, the right-hand rectangular coordinate system is used to describe the motion of CNC machine tools. The coordinate axis parallel to the spindle is defined as Z axis, and the rotation coordinates around x, y and Z axis are a, B and C respectively. The movement of each coordinate axis can be realized by the table or by the movement of the tool, but the direction is defined by the movement direction of the tool relative to the workpiece. Generally, five axis linkage refers to the linear interpolation movement of any five coordinates in X, y, Z, a, B and C.
In other words, five axis refers to x, y, Z three moving axes plus any two rotating axes. Compared with the common three-axis (x, y, Z three degrees of freedom) machining, five axis machining means that when machining the parts with complex geometry, the machining tools need to be able to locate and connect in the five degrees of freedom.
The machine tool used in five axis machining is usually called five axis machine tool or five axis machining center. Five axis machining is often used in aerospace field to process body parts, turbine parts and impellers with free-form surfaces. Five axis machine tool can process different sides of the workpiece without changing the position of the workpiece on the machine tool, which can greatly improve the processing efficiency of prismatic parts. Five axis machining center manufacturing technology features:
With the continuous development of mold manufacturing technology, some weaknesses of vertical machining center itself are more and more obvious. Dongguan high-speed computer gong processing, modern mold processing generally uses ball end milling cutter to process, ball end milling cutter brings obvious benefits in mold processing, but if the vertical machining center is used, its bottom surface linear speed is zero, so the bottom surface finish is very poor, if the five axis machining center processing technology is used to process the mold, the above shortcomings can be overcome.
The use of five axis machining center makes the workpiece clamping easier. There is no need for special fixture during processing, which reduces the cost of fixture, avoids multiple clamping, and improves the accuracy of mold processing. Five axis technology can reduce the number of fixtures.
In addition, because the five axis machining center can save a lot of special tools in processing, so it reduces the cost of tools. Five axis machining center can increase the effective cutting edge length of the tool, reduce the cutting force, improve the service life of the tool and reduce the cost. Using five axis machining center to process the mold can quickly complete the mold processing, fast delivery, better guarantee the processing quality of the mold, make the mold processing easier, and make the mold modification easier. In the traditional mold processing, the vertical machining center is generally used to complete the workpiece milling.
Machining center a machine tool, centralized milling machine, drilling machine, tapping machine and other equipment functions, it can reduce the number of enterprise machine tools, because one person can operate multiple machining centers at the same time, reduce the operator, labor costs correspondingly reduced; in addition, it has a CNC machining center.
Five axis machining center has strong adaptability and good flexibility. The machining center can easily carry out multiple different processing procedures for box parts, such as drilling, reaming, reaming, boring, tapping, milling end face and trenching, so it can process parts with complex contour shape or difficult to control size, such as fan blade, automobile engine box and so on.
Five axis machining center supporting fixture stiffness, machining center’s own stiffness and accuracy maintenance requirements are very high; machining center technology is complex, and has high requirements for use, maintenance and management; machining center has a large one-time investment, and needs to be equipped with other auxiliary devices, such as CNC tool system. The operation and monitoring of CNC machining axis-0 are all completed in the control unit of CNC machine tool, which is the brain of CNC machine tool.
Compared with ordinary machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics:
High machining accuracy and stable machining quality;
It can carry out multi coordinate linkage and process complex parts;
When the machining parts are changed, generally only the NC program needs to be changed, which can save the production preparation time;
The machine tool itself has high precision, high rigidity, and can select favorable processing amount, with high productivity (generally 3-5 times of that of ordinary machine tool);
High degree of automation of machine tool can reduce labor intensity;
Five axis CNC machining requires higher quality of operators and higher technical requirements of maintenance personnel. CNC machine tools are generally composed of the following parts:
A. Host: it is the theme of CNC machine tools, including machine body, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical parts. It is used to complete a variety of cutting machinery.