Hardware parts processing is popular in many places, among which nut is one of the parts. Introduce the use and application of nut
Application of nut: it is suitable for fastening all thickness plates and pipes (0.5mm-6mm), convenient and firm; instead of traditional welding nut, it can make up for the defects of sheet metal, thin pipe welding, unsmooth welding nut, etc.
Type of nut: flat head small head hexagon and half hexagon rivet nut, with through hole, blind hole, knurled and no knurled. Also known as rivet nut, pull cap, instant pull cap, used in all kinds of metal plate, pipe and other manufacturing industries in the field of fastening.
The nut can solve the defects of metal sheet and thin pipe welding, the nut is easy to melt, the tapping internal thread is easy to slide and so on. 1、 Before entering the post, all employees should check whether their clothes meet the work requirements. Slippers, high-heeled shoes and clothes affecting safety are not allowed. Those with long hair should wear safety helmets. When working, keep the right posture, have enough spirit to deal with the work, if you find that you feel unwell, you should leave the job immediately and report to the leader. The operator must not operate in the state of irritability and fatigue, so as to avoid accidents and ensure operation safety.
Before working, check whether the moving part is filled with lubricating oil, then start and check whether the clutch and brake are normal, and idle the machine for 1-3 minutes. It is strictly forbidden to operate in case of mechanical failure.
When replacing the die, first turn off the power supply, and then start to install and debug the die after the punch movement department stops running. After the installation and adjustment, move the flywheel by hand for trial punching twice to check whether the upper and lower dies are symmetrical and reasonable, whether the screws are firm, and whether the blank holder is in a reasonable position.
It is necessary to wait for all other personnel to leave the mechanical working area and take away the debris on the workbench before starting the power supply to start the machine.
After starting, one person shall transport the materials and operate the machine. Other people shall not press the electric building or step on the foot switch board, nor put their hands into the working area of the machine or touch the moving parts of the machine with their hands. When the machine works, it is forbidden to extend the hand into the slider working area, and it is forbidden to take and place the workpiece by hand. The standard tools must be used when taking and placing the workpiece in the die. In case of abnormal sound or machine failure, turn off the power switch immediately for inspection.
When off duty, turn off the idle power, and sort out the finished products, leftover materials and sundries on the post to ensure the clean and safe working environment.
The above operating procedures must be observed consciously, do not operate in violation of regulations. In case of failure, cooperate with the maintenance personnel for maintenance. In case of accident, cut off the power supply immediately, keep on-site report to the factory and wait for treatment. All consequences caused by violation of operating procedures shall be borne by the parties concerned.
The common wear types in machining include running in wear, hard grain wear, surface fatigue wear, thermal wear, phase change wear and hydrodynamic wear.
Running in wear is a kind of wear under normal load, speed and lubrication, which develops slowly and has little effect on machining quality in a short time.
Hard grain wear is due to the parts themselves or from the outside into the machine tool hard particles, mixed into the processing area, by mechanical cutting or grinding, causing damage to the parts, which has a serious impact on the processing quality.
Surface fatigue wear is a kind of mechanical damage caused by micro cracks or pits under alternating load. This kind of wear is usually closely related to the pressure, load characteristics, parts material, size and other factors.
Hot wear refers to the phenomenon that the heat generated in the process of friction acts on the parts, such as tempering softening, burning and wrinkling. This kind of wear usually occurs in high-speed and high-pressure sliding friction, which is destructive and accompanied by accident wear.
Corrosion wear is a kind of chemical action, that is, chemical corrosion causes wear. When the part surface contacts with acid, alkali, salt liquid or harmful gas, it will be subject to chemical erosion, or the part surface combines with oxygen to form hard and brittle metal oxide which is easy to fall off and wear the part.
Phase transformation wear is a kind of wear caused by long-term work at high temperature, the grain of metal structure on the surface of the part becomes larger when heated, and the grain boundary is oxidized, resulting in a small gap, which makes the part fragile and wear resistance decreased. Hydrodynamic wear is caused by the impact of liquid or particles mixed in liquid on the surface of parts at a faster velocity.
The selection of rail vertical machining center should be suitable for the product
Each CNC machine tool rail track machining center 850 has limited performance and processing scope. Only in a certain processing condition can the best processing efficiency be achieved for the corresponding machining objects. When selecting the CNC machine tools, the computer gong must consider the advanced nature of CNC machine tools and the adaptability to product categories (product modification), and avoid numerical control as much as possible. It is uneconomical for large machine tools to process small parts and high precision machine tools to process ordinary precision parts, which should be avoided as far as possible.
In terms of specifications, specifications usually refer to the stroke range of 850 coordinate axis and the power of main motor of CNC machine tool rail vertical machining center. When determining specifications, the size distribution of workpiece should be comprehensively considered. Generally, the size of workpiece should be 100-200 mm larger than that of workpiece, There is a big gap between the size of the worktable and the stroke of the coordinate axis of CNC machine tools made by different manufacturers, which can be used as a reference in the selection.
Considering from the type of CNC machine tool, according to the different processing elements of the workpiece, the form of CNC machine tool is also different. For example, the box parts need to be processed around the hole system. At this time, the line rail vertical machining center 850 is not suitable. The horizontal machining center should be considered, and the rotary table should be configured, and the size of the table should adapt to the installation requirements of the workpiece In the machining of cavity parts, the elongation and deformation of the vertical axis of CNC machine tool after heating should be considered in the long-time machining of large parts. Under possible conditions, it is most suitable to select the full closed-loop control mode or the CNC machine tool with full closed-loop control only in the vertical axis.
The performance and processing range of each kind of CNC machine tool is limited. Only under certain processing conditions, the corresponding processing object can achieve the best benefit. When choosing CNC machine tools, on the one hand, we should consider the advanced nature of CNC machine tools and the adaptability to product categories (product modification). On the other hand, we should avoid the waste of large size and high accuracy of CNC machine tools. It is not economical for large machine tools to process small parts and high-precision machine tools for processing ordinary parts. Professional mold manufacturing enterprises should give priority to the selection of CNC milling machines with working bench to meet the requirements. The automatic tool change function has little impact on the processing process, while the automatic tool change function (tool magazine) of large CNC machine tools costs a lot. The cooling channel of plastic mold is usually deep hole (diameter 10-16mm, length 500-1200mm), with large processing capacity and vertical processing Center 850 is still not suitable, so special horizontal deep hole CNC drilling machine should be selected, which can complete deep hole processing tasks efficiently and automatically.
The selection of rail vertical machining center should be compatible with the product. How to realize “0” scrap in NC lathe processing? In the CNC lathe processing industry, the ideal goal of each manufacturer is zero waste manufacturing. In order to make supplementary adjustment or feedback control for CNC lathe processing equipment, the dynamic accuracy theory should be studied from the accuracy theory, including the evaluation of dynamic accuracy. This paper studies how to make full use of the measurement information to achieve zero waste production. Through the full use of 100% online measurement data, the dynamic characteristics of error distribution in the process of processing and measurement are analyzed, At the same time, according to the dynamic characteristics of machining error and the accuracy loss characteristics of sensor accuracy, as well as the product quality requirements and tolerance regulations, Dongguan CNC machining center gives the basic theoretical model of zero waste manufacturing, and makes full use of modern mathematical methods such as artificial neural network and genetic algorithm to accurately predict the machining quality, so as to achieve quality control in advance.
In the process of CNC lathe processing, the workpiece can be measured online or 100% detected, which needs to study the test equipment suitable for dynamic or quasi dynamic, and even can be integrated into the special test equipment of CNC lathe processing, so as to achieve real-time test. According to the test results, the process parameters are constantly modified, but in the process of achieving this goal, the role and significance of precision test technology is self-evident. The processing quality of parts and the assembly quality of the whole machine are related to the processing equipment, test equipment (non-standard parts processing) and the analysis and processing of test information. Therefore, zero waste production can be realized from the perspective of precision test To start, we need to consider some problems.
CNC precision mechanical parts, any kind of machinery and equipment are composed of many different small parts, each part plays a crucial role. Parts need to be assembled, so precision machinery parts processing manufacturers will carry out reprocessing according to this demand. After processing various parts, we can get more suitable parts. Therefore, in order to make these products serve us better, many people can’t do without precision machinery processing. In order to ensure the precision of precision parts processing, rough and fine mechanical parts processing is best carried out separately. Because of the large amount of cutting, the cutting force and clamping force on the workpiece are large, and the heat value is high, and the obvious work hardening phenomenon on the machined surface of the mechanical parts, there is a large internal stress in the workpiece. If the rough and rough mechanical parts are processed continuously, the precision of the finished parts will be lost quickly because of the redistribution of the stress.
The heat treatment process is often arranged in the process route of CNC precision parts. The location of heat treatment process is as follows: in order to improve the cutting performance of metal, such as annealing, normalizing, quenching and tempering, it is generally arranged before the machining of mechanical parts.
CNC precision parts of the processing process is very strict, feed, out of the tool linked. Grasping the precision of the size can reduce the material loss and reduce the cost. For example, 1 mm plus or minus how many microns and so on, if the size is wrong, it will become a scrap, and the parts can not be used.
Research on key technology of design and manufacture of continuous fine blanking die for complex parts
The continuous fine blanking die for complex parts is the frontier basic technology of fine blanking technology, and it is expected to promote the whole fine blanking technology in China. Taking the synchronizer gear ring, clutch plate, longitudinal compound continuous fine blanking process and continuous fine blanking die for complex parts as the breakthrough point, the key technology of fine blanking die design and manufacturing is studied, so as to realize the rapid improvement of fine blanking die technology in China and shorten the gap with advanced countries as soon as possible.
Die life is a comprehensive reflection of die material, process and supporting product level. Taking die life of fine blanking as the leader to carry out technical research can not only solve the problem of low die life which is urgently needed in China, but also drive the technological development of die material, fine blanking process, supporting tooling and other auxiliary products.
Precision blanking and precision forging are two advanced manufacturing technologies developed in parallel. If the precision blanking parts are too thick and need precision forging, the precision forging must be too thin. They are closely related. The basic idea of developing precision forging and fine blanking compound process is to find the combination point of the two processes (such as gear parts with wheel hub and cam parts with short shaft). The precision forging in China has a long history and has a high level, so it is a good way to improve the overall level of precision blanking technology in China
(1) the dimensions are accurate with tolerance of ± 0.02mm for young and ± 0.04mm for coarse;
(2) there is no deformation;
(3) the knife pattern is clear, and there is no particularly rough knife pattern;
(4) the line is clear, and there is no step at the cutting point;
(5) there is no obvious drape front which is difficult to remove;
(6) the thickness of palmar floor should be 15-25 mm, and the standard is 20 mm;
(7) the copper code is correct;
(8) reduce the spark level around the reference level.
(1) processing feasibility;
(3) enough strength without deformation;
(4) convenient processing;
(5) copper cost;
(6) beautiful appearance;
(7) the less copper is removed, the better;
(8) for symmetrical products, the left and right copper male should be processed together as far as possible, and the number shifting processing should be used.
(1) when roughening the general size steel, try to choose Φ 30r5, and when roughening the larger size steel, try to choose Φ 63r6;
(2) the M16 tool is selected for the height of copper surface below 70mm; the M20 tool is selected for the height between 70-85mm; the M25 tool is selected for the height between 85-120mm; the Φ 25r0.8 and Φ 32r0.8 flying tool handles are selected for the height above 120mm; the parts that must be removed in the middle of the night are inspected by the programmer tomorrow morning and confirmed by the programmer the next day. For large workpieces, the team leader or clerk shall inform the technician to collect the workpieces
(3) the copper male 2D shape light knife, the height below 50 mm, select the M12 tool; the height is 50-70 mm
M16 tool is selected for the height between 70-85mm, M20 tool is selected for the height between 85-120mm
M25 is used when the diameter is more than 120mm, and Φ 25r0.8 and Φ 32r0.8 flying tools are used when the diameter is more than 120mm;
(4) for flat surface or higher surface, try to choose Φ 20r4, Φ 25r5 and Φ 40r6
As a light knife tool;
(5) the specific processing parameters are shown in the table of rough and finish processing parameters.
(1) the programmer is responsible for the test results;
(2) workpiece inspection shall be conducted according to the seven requirements of Article 14;
(3) in principle, the steel material will not be removed from the machine until it is tested on the machine tool, and the steel material processed in the night shift will be sent to the machine as far as possible
(4) in principle, tonggong should be tested in the “to be tested area”. After the test is OK, the programmer should place it in time
In the “qualified area”, the tooling technician is only allowed to take the workpiece in the “qualified area”;
(5) if the unqualified workpiece is detected, it shall be reported to the director of the Department, who shall decide whether to add it again
Work, refuel or check according to the qualified workpiece;
(6) if the head of the department checks the unqualified parts as qualified ones, which leads to mold quality problems
Therefore, the head of the Department is mainly responsible.
(1) the four sides of the mould material in the front and rear moulds are divided into the middle, and the bottom surface is zero;
(2) in the four sides of the original body mold, if the PL surface is a plane, the plane takes the number; if the PL surface is not a plane, the bottom takes the number. Get the datum angle of the non original mold embryo;
(3) the two sides of the row are divided into the middle, the bottom of the row touches one side, and the depth is zero on the top in principle. If the technician has done other water transportation and inclined holes before CNC machining, the bottom is zero;
(4) tonggong is represented by T, R and f respectively;
(5) the reference angle is the corner with the die number printed on the front and rear die material;
(6) the profile of the stop copper male of the R package should be reduced by 0.08mm to ensure that the product does not scratch hands;
(7) in principle, the X direction is the long dimension, and the Y direction is the short dimension;
(8) when “contour contour” and “optimum contour” are used for finish machining, the machining direction shall be “parallel milling” as far as possible; when flying knife is used for finish milling, the “parallel milling” must be adopted;
(9) in principle, there are four corners at the bottom of the copper palm, one corner corresponds to the mold datum angle, the chamfer angle C4, and the other three corners are rounded R2;
(10) when white steel cutter is used to process copper profile, the spark position parameter should be 0.015mm more than the required value;
(11) the copper male reference level shall be machined to the bottom, and 0.2mm shall be left at the bottom (to prevent the cutter from touching the code board);
(12) the tolerance of tool path compiling and calculating surface: 0.05mm, 0.025mm and 0.008mm respectively;
⒀ when alloy knife is used for finishing straight body surface of steel, Z cutting amount is 1.2mm, when handle is used, Z cutting amount is 0.50mm. The straight body surface must be milled in order;
(14) in principle, the length of the list should be controlled within 250mm and the height should be controlled within 100mm.
The unified regulations of numbering are as follows:
Tn23001 A1 (tn23001 front die copper male 1)
Tn23001 r-a1 (tn23001 right front die copper male 1)
Tn23001 l-a1 (tn23001 left front die copper male 1)
Tn23001 R1 (tn23001 rear die copper male 1)
Tn23001 r-r1 (tn23001 right rear die copper male 1)
Tn23001 l-r1 (tn23001 left rear die copper male 1)
Tn23001 sla1 (tn23001 row a copper male 1)
Tn23001 ina1 (tn23001 phase a copper male 1)
Tn23001 xda1 (tn23001 square a copper male 1)
Tn23001 tb1 (tn23001 push plate copper male 1)
Tn23001 MG1 (tn23001 modified copper male 1)
D: 03 / tn23001d.mc8 (3D product drawing)
\ ASM.MC8 (internal model combination diagram)
\CAV\ CAV.MC8 (3D drawing of mould and Copper drawing of front mould)
\Cav-1.mc8 (front die copper male 1, including tool path)
\CAV- CNC.MC8 (front die tool path diagram)
\COR\ COR.MC8 (3D drawing of back die and Copper drawing of back die)
\Cor-1.mc8 (rear die copper male 1, including tool path)
\COR- CNC.MC8 (road map of rear die)
\IN\ IN.MC8 (phase part 3D drawing and phase part Copper drawing)
\SL\ SLA.MC8 (row position a3d diagram and its copper map)
\Sla-1.mc8 (row position a copper male 1, including tool path)
\XD\ XDA.MC8 (oblique a3d diagram and its coppergraph)
\Xda-1.mc8 (bevel a copper male 1, including knife path)
\EDM \ *. MC8 (all spark count charts)
\EDW \ *. MC8 (all WEDM drawings)
\Modify / modify 1
\Modify2 the second modification
Machining center (MC) is a kind of automatic tool changing NC machine tool which is developed rapidly to meet the requirements of labor-saving, time-saving and energy-saving era. It is a combination of mechanical technology, electronic technology, computer software technology, pneumatic technology Drag technology, modern control theory, measurement and sensing technology, communication diagnosis, cutting tool and programming technology are high-tech products. It integrates the functions of milling machine, drilling machine and boring machine. Automatic tool changing device is added. It is a highly efficient and automatic machine controlled by computer. Because the machining center has a variety of tool change or tool selection functions and automatic workbench exchange device (APC), it can automatically drill, ream, ream, bore, tap thread, mill and other multi process processing on the workpiece after one clamping, and automatically complete or nearly complete the multi process processing of multiple planes or angles of the workpiece, so as to greatly improve the production efficiency and the degree of automation.
Because the machining center can greatly reduce the workpiece clamping, measuring and machine adjustment time, reduce the turnover, handling and storage time of the workpiece, so that the cutting time utilization rate of the machine tool is 3-4 times higher than that of the ordinary machine tool; and the machining center has a good consistency, compared with the single machine and man-made operation mode, it can eliminate the human interference in the process flow, and has a higher productivity Production and stable quality, especially when processing 1000 pieces with complex shape, high precision and frequent variety change, it has good economy.
With the rapid development of electronic technology and the appearance and application of various sensors with good performance, the functions of machining center are becoming more and more perfect. These functions include: tool life monitoring function, tool wear and damage monitoring function, cutting state monitoring function, abnormal cutting monitoring, alarm and automatic shutdown function, automatic detection and self diagnosis function and adaptive control function And so on. The machining center is also organically connected with the automatic supporting plate with accompanying fixture, and can cut eyebrows automatically, which makes the machining center become the key equipment and basic unit of flexible manufacturing system, computer integrated remanufacturing system and automatic chemical plant
In case of failure of precision CNC lathe, it should be stopped immediately, diagnosed and eliminated in time, otherwise it will lead to greater damage or even danger. The principle of fault diagnosis of precision CNC lathe should be mastered.
The reliability of modern precision CNC lathe system is higher and higher, the failure rate of CNC system itself is lower and lower, and most of the failures are caused by non system reasons. Because the precise numerical control lathe is a machine tool with mechanical, hydraulic and electrical integration, the occurrence of its fault will also be reflected by the three. Maintenance personnel should check from outside to inside one by one. Try to avoid unsealing and disassembling at will, otherwise it will enlarge the fault and make the machine lose precision and performance. The external faults of the system are mainly caused by the problems of detection switch, hydraulic components, pneumatic components, electrical actuators and mechanical devices.
First, in the static state of power failure of the precision CNC lathe, through understanding, observation, testing and analysis, it is confirmed that the failure will not expand after power on, and after the accident occurs, the machine tool can be powered on. In the running state, dynamic observation, inspection and testing are carried out to find the fault. However, if there is a destructive failure after power on, the danger must be eliminated before power on.
Generally speaking, mechanical fault is easy to find, but the diagnosis of numerical control system and electrical fault is more difficult. Before the troubleshooting of precision CNC lathe, we should first pay attention to the elimination of mechanical faults.
When there are many kinds of faults intertwined, we should solve the easy problems first, and then solve the more difficult problems. After solving simple problems, difficult problems may become easier.
CNC Lathe Feed processing path refers to the path that the turning tool starts to move from the tool setting point (or the fixed origin of the machine tool) until it returns to the point and ends the processing program, including the path of cutting and the path of non cutting empty stroke such as cutting in and cutting out.
The feed route of finishing machining is basically carried out along the contour of the parts. Therefore, the key point of determining the feed route is to determine the feed route of rough machining and empty stroke.
In the CNC lathe processing, the determination of the processing route should generally follow the following principles.
① It should be able to ensure the accuracy and surface roughness of the workpiece to be processed.
② The processing route is shortest, the idle travel time is reduced, and the processing efficiency is improved.
③ The workload of numerical calculation should be simplified as much as possible.
④ For some repeated programs, subroutines should be used.
Advantages and disadvantages of CNC CNC CNC machining has the following advantages:
① The number of tooling is greatly reduced, and complex tooling is not needed to process complex parts. If we want to change the shape and size of the parts, we only need to modify the processing program of the parts, which is suitable for the development and modification of new products.
② The machining quality is stable, the machining accuracy is high, and the repetition accuracy is high, which can meet the machining requirements of aircraft.
③ In the case of multi variety and small batch production, the production efficiency is high, which can reduce the time of production preparation, machine adjustment and process inspection, and reduce the cutting time due to the use of the best cutting quantity.
④ It can process complex surface which is difficult to be processed by conventional methods, and even process some parts which cannot be observed.
The processing quality of machine parts, in addition to the processing accuracy, also has the processing surface quality, which is the representation of the integrity of the surface layer after processing.
With the rapid development of modern machine manufacturing industry, the requirements for machine parts are increasing day by day. Some important parts must work under the conditions of high speed, high temperature, high pressure and heavy load. Any defect in the surface layer not only directly affects the working performance of parts, but also causes accelerated wear, corrosion and failure of parts. Therefore, we must pay attention to the surface quality.
① Surface roughness surface roughness refers to the micro geometric error of machined surface. In Figure 5-8 (a), R. Represents the arithmetic mean deviation of the roughness profile. The surface roughness is usually formed by the movement path of cutting tool in machining, and the ratio of wavelength to wave height is generally less than 50.
② Surface waviness and surface transition are periodic geometric errors between macro geometric errors (△ *) and micro geometric errors (roughness). In Fig. 58 (b), a represents the height of waviness. The surface waviness is usually caused by the low frequency vibration of the process system in the process of machining, and the ratio of the surface waviness to the wave height is generally 50 ~ l ∞ 0